Some of the conditions treated:
- Anxiety - Generalized
- Acute Stress Reaction
- Stress Reaction - Acute
- Stress Reaction - Psychomotor
- Agoraphobia - With Panic Attacks
- Agoraphobia - Without Panic Attacks, Simple Phobia
- Cervicalgia (Neck Pain)
- Muscle Spasms Low Back Pain Syndrome
- Lumbrosacral/Sacroiliac Myoskis (inflammation of Back Muscles)
- Essential Hypertension
- Raynaud's Disease
- Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
- Myofascial Pain
- Colitis Duodenal Ulcer (W/O Obstruction)
- Esophageal Reflux
- Hyperactive Gag Reflex
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome
- Peptic Ulcer (Stress/Site Unspecified)
- Stomach Ulcer (W/O Obstruction)
- Cephalgia (Headache Pain/Source Unknown)
- Muscle Contraction Tension - Non-Organic Origin
- Vascular (Not Migraine)
Muscle Disorders (Other Than Back):
- Anus (Sphincter) Relaxation
- Muscle Spasms (Other Than Back)
- Parkinson's Disease
- Spasmodic Torticollis
- Tics & Spasms (Chronic or Compulsive)
- Tourette's Syndrome (Motor-Verbal Tic)
- Respiration Disorders
- Respiratory Distress
- Insomnia (Non-Organic Origin)
- Pain - Psychogenic
Integrative Medicine & Biofeedback Clinic specialists perform biofeedback, neurofeedback and psychophysiology as part of
their treatment protocol. The treating therapists are members of the AAPB.
Contact Integrative Medicine & Biofeedback Clinic for a consultation
to help you decide if neurofeedback is right for you.
(from the Association For Applied Psychophysiology and
also called "EEG Biofeedback" and "Neurofeedback." It involves helping
a person learn how to modify his or her brainwave activity to improve
attention, reduce impulsivity, and to control hyperactive behaviors.
It is a painless, non-invasive treatment approach that allows the
individual to gain information about his or her brainwave activity and
use that information to produce changes in brainwave activity.
Available research indicates that individuals with ADD/ADHD have too
little of certain types of brainwave activity in some areas of the
brain and/or too much of certain other brainwave activity in
comparison to those without the disorder. In Neurotherapy individuals
are trained through the use of computerized biofeedback equipment to
change their brainwave activity.
researchers who have provided Neurotherapy training report that when
brainwave activity is changed, or when the brain is trained to work in
certain ways in the process of Neurotherapy, symptoms of ADD/ADHD are
is measured with an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG Biofeedback
equipment is connected to the individual with sensors that are placed
on the scalp and ears. The sensors are safe, do not prick the skin,
and are painless. After adequate connection to the scalp and ears are
made, the individual's brainwave activity can be observed on a
practitioners who administer Neurotherapy will help the client learn
to change his or her brainwave activity. The client does not need to
know a lot about Neurotherapy or biofeedback to be effectively
trained. Clients are taught to play computerized games using their
brainwave activity. Changes in client brainwave activity are fed back
to the individual through visual and/or auditory information by the
computer. One example is a game where clients move a figure through a
maze (similar to the popular pac-man game). The figure does not move
because of the client's motor activity (e.g., pushing a button or
moving a stick). Instead, the figure moves whenever the client
produces specific brainwave patterns. When desired levels of brainwave
activity occur, the individual is reinforced, because the figure moves
through the maze. By this method, clients learn to change brainwave
activity. Clients also practice maintaining learned brainwave states
when engaged in school- or work-related tasks (e.g., reading,
writing). This will help them use what they learned in Neurotherapy in
their daily activities.
Are Expected from Neurotherapy?
Through changes in
brainwave activity, reductions in ADD/ADHD symptoms are expected to
occur. Individuals who have received Neurotherapy have also reported
improvements in school or work performance, social relationships, and
self-esteem, as well as reduction in irritability and oppositional
behavior. Neurotherapy practitioners will use various assessment
instruments to determine whether the desired changes in brainwave
activity and/or behavior have occurred.
be aware that Neurotherapy can have a significant effect on seizure
activity of those with seizure disorders. This effect, however, is
usually positive (i.e., a reduction in seizures).
While you should
not experience negative side-effects from Neurotherapy, you may
experience additional benefits. Some individuals report increased
relaxation, reduced stress, and a heightened sense of control over
their bodies, thoughts, and feelings during or immediately after
and researchers have reported remarkable success in the treatment of
ADD/ADHD with Neurotherapy. Others still consider Neurotherapy to be
an experimental procedure. Several research studies reporting
successful treatment outcomes with ADD/ADHD have been published over
the last 20 years. In addition, there are increasing numbers of
clinician reports being added to computerized data bases that attest
to the effectiveness of Neurotherapy as a treatment for ADD/ADHD.
However, more research on the effectiveness of Neurotherapy in the
treatment of ADD/ADHD is still needed.
The client should
know in advance that, as with all treatments, positive results (i.e.,
reductions in ADD/ADHD symptoms) cannot be guaranteed.
Some major reasons
why practitioners are committed to providing Neurotherapy are: to
attempt to help individuals for whom other approaches have failed, to
help individuals who do not want to use medications for years, and to
add to the scientific evidence related to Neurotherapy's use.
What are the
Potential Side-Effects of Neurotherapy?
Unlike the use of
medications for treating ADD/ADHD, Neurotherapy rarely produces
negative side-effects. In fact, lack of side-effects is a major reason
for the use of Neurotherapy. To learn more about reported
side-effects, you may want to ask a practitioner who provides
Neurotherapy treatment. Some potential side effects are discussed
electrical impedance and to ensure cleanliness and safety, the
client's skin is cleaned on the areas where the EEG sensors are
applied. Some individuals with sensitive skin may experience small
breaks in the skin when the cleaning occurs.
A very, very small
minority of individuals have reported brief periods of negative
feelings (e.g., anxiety, or frustration) or negative physical
sensations (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, tingling sensations) while
undergoing treatment. These negative side-effects are very rare and
usually last for only a short period of time.
experience a disruption in family roles and relationships after the
family member who has received Neurotherapy training gets better. The
problem behaviors of the family member with ADD/ADHD may have masked
other family problems that come into the spotlight once the ADD/ADHD
symptoms are reduced. The anxiety levels of family members may
increase, because they have been used to focusing on one problem and
now must focus on a new one.
How Long Will
Neurotherapy, you or your family member will be learning to change and
control brainwave patterns. This learning process takes time. The
length of treatment varies between individuals. Many individuals
report initial progress after ten sessions, but effective treatment
usually requires between twenty and forty 40 sessions. Clients will be
asked to participate in enough sessions to ensure that treatment
produces the changes in behavior desired or to make clear that the
intervention does not seem to be working for a particular client.
Will Neurotherapy Sessions Occur?
The number of
sessions of treatment received per week varies based on time
available, transportation issues, finances, progress, and individual
preferences. Neurotherapy has been reported to be effective when
sessions are received daily, three times per week, twice per week and
once per week. To assure progress, it is recommended that clients
receive at least one session per week of Neurotherapy. In the initial
stages of training, many practitioners prefer that sessions occur
frequently (e.g., two to three times per week). As learning and
progress take place, sessions are usually reduced to once per week and
finally to one or two sessions per month.
should be administered by a practitioner trained in the use of EEG
equipment, who has the background knowledge about ADD/ADHD and
Neurotherapy needed to provide neurofeedback, who has extensive
experience, or who is practicing under the supervision of a qualified
Disorder is a disorder that can be separated into three types: 1)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type (includes both
symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity), 2)
Predominantly Inattentive Type (sometimes referred to as ADD) and 3)
Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (sometimes referred to as
ADHD or Hyperactivity Disorder).
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type have six or
more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of
hyperactivity-impulsivity that have been present for six or more
months (see sections that follow for sample symptoms).
Attention-Deficit Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADD)
exhibit six or more symptoms of inattention and less than six symptoms
of hyperactivity-impulsivity. They usually exhibit some of the
following symptoms: inattention, distractibility, disorganization,
daydreaming, lack of foresight, carelessness, forgetfulness, lack of
motivation, lack of persistence, and procrastination.
Attention-Deficit Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
(ADHD) usually exhibit six or more symptoms of
hyperactivity-impulsivity and less than six symptoms of inattention.
They usually exhibit some of the following symptoms: hyperactivity,
fidgeting behavior, restlessness, excessive talking, inappropriate
running and climbing, often "on the go," can't wait turn, interrupt
others, and impulsive.
display symptoms that can be included under any of the three types of
attention-deficit disorder. Individuals with an Attention-Deficit
Disorder, e.g., ADD or ADHD often have significant difficulties with
learning, concentration, school or job achievement, behavior control,
social relationships, and self-esteem. Further, Attention-Deficit
Disorders are often associated with other disorders, such as Learning
Disorders, Oppositional and Conduct Disorders, Tourette's, Anxiety,
and Depression. Neurotherapy can be used to treat individuals with all
three types of attention-deficit disorders, as well as some of the
How Do I Know
if My Child or I Have ADD/ADHD?
If an individual
has many of the symptoms specified in the previous section, then that
individual might have ADD or ADHD. To determine whether a diagnosis of
ADD or ADHD is appropriate, the individual should be diagnosed through
a thorough evaluation conducted by professionals who are familiar with
the disorder. Your family physician, a pediatrician, psychiatrist or
psychologist may be able to conduct the appropriate assessment to
determine if such a diagnosis is appropriate or refer you to someone who can make the diagnosis.